SOC 204

NETWORKING TO THE MAX!


    All notes by Wolfpup

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    Join date : 2010-03-02

    All notes by Wolfpup

    Post  Admin on Tue May 11, 2010 1:50 pm

    Honeymoon: on the job training, 3 different types
    1. Lovers’ Nest: Completely absorbed in themselves – rapport
    2. Perpetuum Mobile: take trip & go someplace everyday
    3. Vacation: relax, take it easy before going back to work
    • Expensive
    • Good to have some time for yourself
    • Period of time in new relationship: period of unusually good rapport

    Stages:
    Happy honeymoon: enjoying the union
    Disillusionment & regret: Is this what I wanted?
    Accommodation: realize relationship requires work
    Developmental Tasks: certain things we do as we grow
    Realign loyalties: spouse & children come first
    Mutually agreed upon marital/domestic response
    Mutually agreed upon romantic/emotional/sexual relationship
    Establish identity as a couple

    Models of Family: Gagnon & Green Blat
    1. Unit of emotional satisfaction: degree of satisfaction that family provides
    2. Unit of political economy: who has the power to allocate resources
     Resource Theory of Family Power (Blood & Wolfe): person who brings resources has power
    3. Ongoing system of negotiations: no set determined script for husband & wife; lots of flexibility (operate within social context)
    4. Set of interactional system

    Exchange Theory (Waller): interpersonal skills have power
    Social Resources varies in different societies (Rodman)

    Marital Conflict
    Intimacy:
    Demonstration of feelings
    Sexuality
    Swinging: couples engage in sexual activity with other couples
    Consensual
    Often man convinces wife
    Women get more out of it
    Men usually decided to stop
    Basic value Difference
    Role Expectations (Kirk Patrick)
    1. Wife – and – mother role
    2. Companion role
    3. Partner role
    Try to make the spouse over
    We try to change partner
    Who they are and what they do
    Power struggles and competition
    Used to be man
    Now it’s more equal
    Tremendous Trifles: little things become big problems
    Allocation of Resources: time, money, energy, space
    Children
    External Factors: war, natural disasters, in – laws
    Marital Conflicts in Relations to War
    Guerilla Warfare (ambush)
    Psychological Warfare
    Stand-off Attacks (distant attacks)
    Siege (try to wear other down/ withhold normal responses)
    Blitzkrieg
    Direct frontal assault

    Myths
    Conflicts only occur in poor families
    Domestic violence stays with a family because they can take it

    Marital Dissolution
    Divorce (cannot remarry in church)
    Death
    Annulment
    Marriage never happened legally
    Usually from fraud
    Takes 1 ½ to 3 years
    Separation (Informal & Legal)
    Abandonment

    Divorce Rates
     Crude divorce rate (not useful)
    o Calculates number of divorces per 1000 population
    o Population changes
     Refined divorce rate
    o Number divorces/1000 women aged 14 – 45
     Decreased slightly last 5 – 6 years

    Social Factors
    Social integration: tight knit social network helps each other
    Changing nature of cultural value: collective  individualistic
    Institution of Women who are Divorced: more likely to divorce if nothing holds them back
    Demographic Factors
    Employment status: employed are more likely to divorce
    Income stability: if unstable, people divorce
    Education level: higher, less likely to divorce
    Ethnicity/race: African American & Spanish higher
    Religion: more religious  less likely
    Life Cost Factors
    Intergenerational: parents divorced, they divorce
    Age at time of first marriage: teens higher
    Pre-marital pregnancy: higher
    Cohabit
    Remarried: higher
    Family Process Factors
    Happy marriage: lower
    Children: higher or lower, depends, unpredictable
    Marital problems: role/value differences
    Pressures of adult life
    Restrictive nature of marital roles
    Individual Level Factors
    Liberal attitudes: higher
    Parents’ disapproval: higher
    Depressed: higher
    Short spacing between pregnancies: higher
    Consequences
    Children: age & sex
    Boys: negative reaction (younger)
    Peer relations & school
    Long lasting effect especially if the divorce is bitter
    Difficulty establishing relationships with opposite sex
    Adults: emotional lability (labile)
    Wild mood swings
    Initially have difficulty eating & sleeping
    Ambivalent (Did I do the right thing?)
    Neglect themselves
    Change social relationships
    Can’t have ongoing sexual relationship
    Can’t handle status transformation
    Financial problems
    Mainly women until 1990s
    Feminization of poverty

    Myths
    1. Half of all marriages end in divorce
    2. Second marriages work better
    3. Living together will not result in divorce
    4. Children recover quickly
    5. Having children prevent divorce
    6. Women’s standard of living plummet while men’s rise
    7. Children are better with conflicting parents rather than single homes
    8. Children are successful in marriage
    9. Children are better with step family
    10. Being unhappy = divorce
    11. Usually men who initiate divorce
    Child Custody
    Joint: both have rights (parents live near each other)
    Sole
    Split: child is split over a long period of time
    Tender Years Doctrine (until 1960s): custody went to mother
    Lee Salk: child psychologist, challenged law
    Now custody goes towards best interest of child

    Remarriage
     ¾ men, 2/3 women
     People are fed up with particular marriage, not marriage in general
     Within 3 years of divorce
     Age: younger is higher
     Gender: men more & quickly
     Men in higher social class + women in working class marry more frequently
     Without children
     Employed
     People in south are less likely, North east likely
     New family
     Step families have more problems
     Adjusting to step parent
     Problems with step siblings
     Remarriage is incomplete institution

    Myth
    1. Things will have to work out
    2. Tend to avoid mistakes from first marriage
    3. Marriage makes people happier
    Challenges
    Functioning with ambiguous roles & norms
    Adjusting to step children
    Adjusting step siblings with each other
    Handle finances
    Custody
    Favoritism
    Who disciplines?

    Marital Quality
     Success – social
     Happiness – psych
     Satisfaction – psych
     Adjustment – social psych
     Solidarity – social psych
    Success: performance outcome
    - Societal expectations
    Happiness & Satisfaction
    - What they think about their marriage
    - Can be unhappy at particular point in marriage, but be satisfied overall & vice versa
    Adjustment
    - Interact among members of family
    - 8 Developmental Tasks to Marriages (Clayton)
    1) Marriage Sociability: how the two of you deal with others (social aspect), engage other couples in social activities
    2) Marital Companionship: adjust to/enjoy each other
    3) Economic Affairs: talk about economic needs
    4) Marital Power: decision-making processes, adjustment to who makes decisions where
    5) Extra-family relationships: friends, coworkers, how to balance all the relationships whilst still being committed
    6) Ideological Congruence: similarity/agreement on major issues in life
    7) Marital Intimacy: ways in which we agree on satisfying emotional needs
    Cool Interpersonal Tactics: the way we deal with each other, how to resolve differences, working together
    Solidarity
    - Strength of emotional bonds of other family members
    - Own view of happiness & satisfaction

    Positive Rewards Traditional Barriers Facilitating Mechanisms
    Happiness Success Adjustments
    Satisfaction Sociological Social psychological
    Psychological Tough divorce laws Pair expectation for success
    Social participation as a couple Social pressures Self-fulfilling prophecy
    Interlocking of habits Undesirability of singlehood Rapport building devices
    Ongoing sexual relationship Religious beliefs Interdependence
    Conjugal love Presence of children Empathy & understanding
    Lack of alternatives Substitutive mechanisms

    Marriage Views (that never caught on)
    - Open Marriage: partners can pursue their interests
    - Marriage in 2 Steps:
    1. Individual Marriage: 2 people, older than middle teens, live together
    2. Family marriage: economically, emotionally, physically fit to have children
    - 5 Year Renewable Marriage Contract: at the end of 5 years, can renew or leave marriage
    - Death of the Family: allow polygyny for men over the age of 60

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