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    tanya89

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    Test Questions

    Post  tanya89 on Tue Mar 02, 2010 2:07 pm

    SOC/WST 204 (INTIMATE RELATIONSHIPS)

    ESSAY QUESTIONS: FIRST EXAMINATION


    (Please make sure to use material both from class discussions & the readings to answer these questions.)



    1. What are the major theories of the origin of the family? What are the relative strengths and
    weaknesses of each? Why is it still useful to discuss these “ancient” though likely unprovable theories
    today?

    The major theories of the origin of the family are the biblical theory, original promiscuity, mother-child theory, subjugation of women and original pair theory.
    Each of these theories have various strengths and weaknesses. The biblical theory argues that God created man and woman, and through them came family. There is no scientific evidence for or against this theory, which makes it kind of weak. People can either believe or not believe in this particular theory. One quote that suggests this is “To those who believe, no proof is necessary. To those who don’t believe, no proof is possible.”
    The original promiscuity theory was developed by Luis Henry Morgan. Its weakness is basically that there are no real rules in this theory. It is based upon human nature at the beginning of time. There are few bonds between a man and woman. Gradually over time, there were benefits to some regulations because it helped to provide new existence and support.
    The mother-child theory is an offshoot of original promiscuity, developed by Brifault. He argued that Morgan was correct, but it was actually the bond between mother and the child that created the family. The weakness was that the man was not really involved; the theory makes it so as the male has little to no role in the family. The mother is the main provider. The mother and child are the original family, according to this theory.
    The subjugation of women theory was developed by Engles. It said that all men were married to all the women in the same small society. It was an overall collective marriage. According to Engles, men realized they could subjugate women. They could enhance their power by keeping women pregnant and in the kitchen. It was weak because women are in a very subordinate role, as opposed to a sense of equality.
    Original Pair theory, which was developed by Edward Westermark, argued that from the beginning of time men and women existed as we know it because it provided benefits to each party. Marriage gave benefits to men by sexual relations and women had someone who could provide for them. The main idea was that it was better to have a family because everyone benefitted from it. One may argue that this theory does not really have any weaknesses within in it, because it is the most equal form partnership.
    It is important to discuss each of these theories because although they may seem outdated and in some cases “unfair”, there are still some societies who practice these types of partnerships, and there many different variations of each of these theories. It can be suggested that there five main theories are the “root” to forming the beginnings of marriage and family life. Each society has their own way of insuring some type of stability. How they do it is based upon which method is perceived to be the most beneficial to them. It is important to know and understand these theories to gain a better understanding of how relationships and family life works outside of the one type of view we know today.
















    2. What are the different forms of polygamy? Pick one of them and describe its advantages and
    disadvantages from a sociological perspective. Given a free choice, which of all the marriage
    forms that have been discussed in class would you prefer? Why?



    The two different forms of polygamy are polyandry and group marriage. Polyandry is more than one husband and group marriage is when more than one man and more than one women form a family unit, and are considered to be all married to each other.
    Polyandry has some positive aspects in the sense that there is only one woman to have children. Due to the fact that there is more than one husband, more care can be provided to the woman during her pregnancy, or when she is at home. The negative effects are that because there is more than one husband, it can be less beneficial to the men, because they have only one woman among a group of men to share. It can be said that one form of this is like the Nayar in Southern India. They have “passing visitor” and a “visiting husband”. The woman can choose among different men basically, and when she has a child, it is up to one of the men that she has been with to step up and claim the child as his.
    Group marriage has some advantages and disadvantages as well. Some advantages are that everyone is in one group, everyone is married to each other, and equal responsibilities are delegated amongst that group. Some disadvantages are that it can get to be an issue because there is more than one relationship occurring at a time.
    One example of the group marriage can be Kibbutz people of Israel. They are in a communal state of living. This particular group has everything in common and everything shared. It began in the 1930s by Marxist Polish immigrants who believed in command democrative living. If two people decided they wanted to be married, they had to go before a housing committee. If they were approved, they lived together had children. Their children were then placed into a housing facility after 6 weeks. The buildings were co-ed. If there were any mutual attractions between a boy and a girl as they got older, they went before the housing committee and the process repeated itself again. In a way, this style of living is kind of similar to group marriage.
    If I had a choice, I would probably go with the Nayar style of living. I think that it would allow for less problems in my point of view, because I wouldn’t constantly be sharing everything that I did. I would be able to have several men come to me and care for me and such and I think that it would be kind of an interesting way to live.








    3. What is “kinship,” and what alternative ways are used to identify one’s kin? What other societal norms regarding marriage and family life provide additional information as to who exerts some degree of influence in and on the family? According to Murdock’s and Stephen’s research, what is the relative frequency of each of these forms of direct and indirect indices of power and influence. What is the sociological significance of the frequency of these different forms that Murdock and Stephens found in their research, especially concerning the relative importance of men and women in society

    Kinship is a structured system of relationships in which people are bound to one another by complex interlocking and ramifying ties. There are different societal rules or rules of descent to define one’s kin. The main ones are uni lineal, and non-lineal. There are two different kinds of each. Uni lineal has patrilineal and matrilineal, and non-lineal has bi-lateral and double. Each of these has to deal with who has influence in the family based upon where they live. The types of residences were patrilocal, matrilocal,neolocal, bi-local and matri-patri local. This was according to Murdock. Stephens had similar ideas, but had matriarchy, patriarchy and equal or divided power.
    According to statistics, 67% of Murdock’s families had a patrilocal residence, or residence in which the married couple was obligated to move in with or very close to the groom’s family. The studies show that societies tend to favor men over women.
    4. .Is the nuclear family universal? Why? If so, are the reasons for its universality still operative? Why? Is there a universally consistent role structure for the adults within the nuclear family? If so, what if, any, is the connection between it and gender? If there is such a connection, what is it and why did it originate? Must these structures continue in their same form in the present day? Why?

    The nuclear family is indeed universal. According to Murdock, the nuclear family is the building block of more complex forms of family and relationships, such as extended and polygamist type families. Every family needs this structure because it is based upon four critical functions. They are economic cooperation, reproduction, sexuality, and education. It seems that the there is some consistent role for adults in the sense that they are the main providers for their children; each society; however has different ways of negotiating the four basic functions.
    One of the things that economic cooperation does for a family is that it provides what is known as division of labor. This means the family has what it needs to survive to flourish. People rely on each other to provide for each other. The members of the nuclear family don’t duplicate each other’s work, but compliment it.
    As far as reproduction is concerned, Murdock states that family is the arena for reproduction.
    The next factor, sexuality, has to deal with intimacy. Human beings need intimacy, and family helps establish intimate relationships between the adults and the adults and the children and the adults.
    Education has to do with socialization. It deals with social reproduction of values, beliefs and ideas of societies across generations.
    According to Murdock, family is essential for social continuity for society.
    These 4 functions are efficient when people live together. The connection between adults and gender roles in the family have to do with the society in which this structure is functioning. The nuclear family is merely and outline or guide as to how a family in any society functions; each society has their own way of interpreting these ideas to fit what is best for that particular society.
    This structure is present in societies today, and each society will change things within the structure over time to adapt to their surroundings. The main basis of this idea will remain the same though.


    5. To what extent is the typical American patterns of relationships between men and women that involve
    marriage and the family unique among societies both across historical time and geographical space? Describe these patterns and the relative frequency of their occurrence. What sociological implications may be drawn from this information about the nature of the American system of the relationship between men and women compared to other societies?
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    Admin
    Admin

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    Join date : 2010-03-02

    Re: Test Questions

    Post  Admin on Tue Mar 02, 2010 8:42 pm

    tanya89 wrote:SOC/WST 204 (INTIMATE RELATIONSHIPS)

    ESSAY QUESTIONS: FIRST EXAMINATION


    (Please make sure to use material both from class discussions & the readings to answer these questions.)



    1. What are the major theories of the origin of the family? What are the relative strengths and
    weaknesses of each? Why is it still useful to discuss these “ancient” though likely unprovable theories
    today?

    The major theories of the origin of the family are the biblical theory, original promiscuity, mother-child theory, subjugation of women and original pair theory.
    Each of these theories have various strengths and weaknesses. The biblical theory argues that God created man and woman, and through them came family. There is no scientific evidence for or against this theory, which makes it kind of weak. People can either believe or not believe in this particular theory. One quote that suggests this is “To those who believe, no proof is necessary. To those who don’t believe, no proof is possible.”
    The original promiscuity theory was developed by Luis Henry Morgan. Its weakness is basically that there are no real rules in this theory. It is based upon human nature at the beginning of time. There are few bonds between a man and woman. Gradually over time, there were benefits to some regulations because it helped to provide new existence and support.
    The mother-child theory is an offshoot of original promiscuity, developed by Brifault. He argued that Morgan was correct, but it was actually the bond between mother and the child that created the family. The weakness was that the man was not really involved; the theory makes it so as the male has little to no role in the family. The mother is the main provider. The mother and child are the original family, according to this theory.
    The subjugation of women theory was developed by Engles. It said that all men were married to all the women in the same small society. It was an overall collective marriage. According to Engles, men realized they could subjugate women. They could enhance their power by keeping women pregnant and in the kitchen. It was weak because women are in a very subordinate role, as opposed to a sense of equality.
    Original Pair theory, which was developed by Edward Westermark, argued that from the beginning of time men and women existed as we know it because it provided benefits to each party. Marriage gave benefits to men by sexual relations and women had someone who could provide for them. The main idea was that it was better to have a family because everyone benefitted from it. One may argue that this theory does not really have any weaknesses within in it, because it is the most equal form partnership.
    It is important to discuss each of these theories because although they may seem outdated and in some cases “unfair”, there are still some societies who practice these types of partnerships, and there many different variations of each of these theories. It can be suggested that there five main theories are the “root” to forming the beginnings of marriage and family life. Each society has their own way of insuring some type of stability. How they do it is based upon which method is perceived to be the most beneficial to them. It is important to know and understand these theories to gain a better understanding of how relationships and family life works outside of the one type of view we know today.
















    2. What are the different forms of polygamy? Pick one of them and describe its advantages and
    disadvantages from a sociological perspective. Given a free choice, which of all the marriage
    forms that have been discussed in class would you prefer? Why?



    The two different forms of polygamy are polyandry and group marriage. Polyandry is more than one husband and group marriage is when more than one man and more than one women form a family unit, and are considered to be all married to each other.
    Polyandry has some positive aspects in the sense that there is only one woman to have children. Due to the fact that there is more than one husband, more care can be provided to the woman during her pregnancy, or when she is at home. The negative effects are that because there is more than one husband, it can be less beneficial to the men, because they have only one woman among a group of men to share. It can be said that one form of this is like the Nayar in Southern India. They have “passing visitor” and a “visiting husband”. The woman can choose among different men basically, and when she has a child, it is up to one of the men that she has been with to step up and claim the child as his.
    Group marriage has some advantages and disadvantages as well. Some advantages are that everyone is in one group, everyone is married to each other, and equal responsibilities are delegated amongst that group. Some disadvantages are that it can get to be an issue because there is more than one relationship occurring at a time.
    One example of the group marriage can be Kibbutz people of Israel. They are in a communal state of living. This particular group has everything in common and everything shared. It began in the 1930s by Marxist Polish immigrants who believed in command democrative living. If two people decided they wanted to be married, they had to go before a housing committee. If they were approved, they lived together had children. Their children were then placed into a housing facility after 6 weeks. The buildings were co-ed. If there were any mutual attractions between a boy and a girl as they got older, they went before the housing committee and the process repeated itself again. In a way, this style of living is kind of similar to group marriage.
    If I had a choice, I would probably go with the Nayar style of living. I think that it would allow for less problems in my point of view, because I wouldn’t constantly be sharing everything that I did. I would be able to have several men come to me and care for me and such and I think that it would be kind of an interesting way to live.








    3. What is “kinship,” and what alternative ways are used to identify one’s kin? What other societal norms regarding marriage and family life provide additional information as to who exerts some degree of influence in and on the family? According to Murdock’s and Stephen’s research, what is the relative frequency of each of these forms of direct and indirect indices of power and influence. What is the sociological significance of the frequency of these different forms that Murdock and Stephens found in their research, especially concerning the relative importance of men and women in society

    Kinship is a structured system of relationships in which people are bound to one another by complex interlocking and ramifying ties. There are different societal rules or rules of descent to define one’s kin. The main ones are uni lineal, and non-lineal. There are two different kinds of each. Uni lineal has patrilineal and matrilineal, and non-lineal has bi-lateral and double. Each of these has to deal with who has influence in the family based upon where they live. The types of residences were patrilocal, matrilocal,neolocal, bi-local and matri-patri local. This was according to Murdock. Stephens had similar ideas, but had matriarchy, patriarchy and equal or divided power.
    According to statistics, 67% of Murdock’s families had a patrilocal residence, or residence in which the married couple was obligated to move in with or very close to the groom’s family. The studies show that societies tend to favor men over women.
    4. .Is the nuclear family universal? Why? If so, are the reasons for its universality still operative? Why? Is there a universally consistent role structure for the adults within the nuclear family? If so, what if, any, is the connection between it and gender? If there is such a connection, what is it and why did it originate? Must these structures continue in their same form in the present day? Why?

    The nuclear family is indeed universal. According to Murdock, the nuclear family is the building block of more complex forms of family and relationships, such as extended and polygamist type families. Every family needs this structure because it is based upon four critical functions. They are economic cooperation, reproduction, sexuality, and education. It seems that the there is some consistent role for adults in the sense that they are the main providers for their children; each society; however has different ways of negotiating the four basic functions.
    One of the things that economic cooperation does for a family is that it provides what is known as division of labor. This means the family has what it needs to survive to flourish. People rely on each other to provide for each other. The members of the nuclear family don’t duplicate each other’s work, but compliment it.
    As far as reproduction is concerned, Murdock states that family is the arena for reproduction.
    The next factor, sexuality, has to deal with intimacy. Human beings need intimacy, and family helps establish intimate relationships between the adults and the adults and the children and the adults.
    Education has to do with socialization. It deals with social reproduction of values, beliefs and ideas of societies across generations.
    According to Murdock, family is essential for social continuity for society.
    These 4 functions are efficient when people live together. The connection between adults and gender roles in the family have to do with the society in which this structure is functioning. The nuclear family is merely and outline or guide as to how a family in any society functions; each society has their own way of interpreting these ideas to fit what is best for that particular society.
    This structure is present in societies today, and each society will change things within the structure over time to adapt to their surroundings. The main basis of this idea will remain the same though.


    5. To what extent is the typical American patterns of relationships between men and women that involve
    marriage and the family unique among societies both across historical time and geographical space? Describe these patterns and the relative frequency of their occurrence. What sociological implications may be drawn from this information about the nature of the American system of the relationship between men and women compared to other societies?

    WOAA TANYAA>>!! BADASS!!.. LET ME ORGANIZE THIS FOR YOU!!

    Loretta

    Posts : 4
    Join date : 2010-03-02

    Re: Test Questions

    Post  Loretta on Tue Mar 02, 2010 10:27 pm

    hey Tanya
    I was looking at your answer to question 2 and you said that there are two different types of polygamy. i believe there are 3 though. you mentioned polyandry and group marriage but there is also polygyny which is when a man is married to more 2 or more woman whereas polyandry is when a woman is married to 2 or more men. There's pretty much opposites so i think they count as two different forms of polygamy.
    Correct me if i'm wrong though!
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    Admin
    Admin

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    Re: Test Questions

    Post  Admin on Wed Mar 03, 2010 8:15 am

    Loretta wrote:hey Tanya
    I was looking at your answer to question 2 and you said that there are two different types of polygamy. i believe there are 3 though. you mentioned polyandry and group marriage but there is also polygyny which is when a man is married to more 2 or more woman whereas polyandry is when a woman is married to 2 or more men. There's pretty much opposites so i think they count as two different forms of polygamy.
    Correct me if i'm wrong though!

    No I actually think you are right. I remember there are 3. I'm not sure what they were. but i remember there were 3?

    mbuckley

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    Join date : 2010-03-02

    Re: Test Questions

    Post  mbuckley on Wed Mar 03, 2010 9:58 am

    Three types of polygamy:
    1. group marriage
    2. polyandry
    3. polygny

    All 3 count as separate forms.
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    Admin

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    Re: Test Questions

    Post  Admin on Wed Mar 03, 2010 10:58 am

    mbuckley wrote:Three types of polygamy:
    1. group marriage
    2. polyandry
    3. polygny

    All 3 count as separate forms.

    Group marriage is a form of polyamory in which more than one man and more than one woman form a family unit, with all the members of the group marriage being considered to be married to all the other members of the group marriage, and all members of the marriage share parental responsibility for any children arising from the marriage.[1]


    Polyandry (Greek: poly- many, andros- man) refers to a form of sexual union, in which a woman is married to two or more husbands at the same time. The form of polyandry in which a woman is married to two or more brothers is known as "fraternal polyandry", and it is believed by many anthropologists to be the most frequently encountered form.

    Polygyny (from neo-Greek: πολύ poly - "many", and γυνή gyny - "woman or wife")[1] is a form of marriage in which a man has two or more wives at the same time,[2] or, to put it another way, more than one woman share a man. It is distinguished from a relationship where a man has a sexual partner outside marriage, such as a concubine, casual sexual partner, paramour, or other culturally recognized secondary partner. Polygyny is the most common form of polygamy. The much rarer practice of polyandry is the form of marriage in which one woman has two or more husbands at the same time.[3]

    sweet123

    Posts : 1
    Join date : 2010-03-03

    Re: Test Questions

    Post  sweet123 on Wed Mar 03, 2010 3:36 pm

    Hi,
    I was just looking over Tanya's answer to question # 2 and I was under impression that Nayar and Kibbutz where the exceptions that didn't fall into neither categories, but I could be wrong. I will try to email the TA and make sure, so don't my word for it....

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