SOC 204





    Posts : 2
    Join date : 2010-04-11


    Post  mmscott on Mon May 10, 2010 7:52 pm

    May 4
    Factors that have an effect on divorce rates.

    Social factors:
    Societal factors, there are some elements that effect the divorce rate

    Structure of the family, tsocial integration, how tight a community Is effects the divorce rate.

    As a society, we have become more mobile, and as a results more divorce.

    As we are less socially integrated, we the divorce rate increases

    Changing nature of cultural values, trending to a more me generation, focusing more on self, and as we put more emphasis on individual needs over family needs

    Increased institutional support for woman, for a long time woman stayed in unhappy marriages, but now that they are more supported by society, work, other economic factors, it has had an effect on the divorce rate

    There are also demographic factors
    Things like employment status, people who are employed low status occupations are more likely to get divorced.

    Low income high divorce rate, high income low rate

    High income stability leads to more divorce, based on pressure.

    Education levels more educated, less divorce.

    Social class status is made up of these three catagorues

    Higher social class status

    Mexicans are lower then whites, but hispanics and blacks are highher

    Protestants have a higher then catholic who are higher then Jews..

    More religious, less divorce

    Life course factors...

    There is an intergenerational transmission of divorce. People who come from divorce have a slightly higher probability of themselves getting divorced, because they see what the alternative is if hey are unhappy.

    Age at the time of first marriage... Teenagers who marry have a higher divorce rate then older

    Premarital pregnancies, lead to increased divorce rate.
    People who cohabit have a higher divorce rate...
    Perhaps the people who cohabit are avant garde, non traditional people, probably the most important reason, but the studies aren't clear.

    People who get divorced and remarried have a higher divorce rate then frost marriages.
    Slightly higher.

    Routinization of married life
    Most people expect something other then routine, day in and day out, same day... People get disillusioned, and they aren't prepared for that and some proportion of them divorce. Life isn't about thrill seeking...

    Family process factors...
    Marriage is happy isn't likely to end in divorce
    Children.... If you had children, but children seem to have a complicated relation to divorce rate. It's less predictive then it use to be
    Marital problems, different role expectations or values
    Pressures of adult life, highest degree of satisfaction before children and when children leave, this doesn't seem to be related to the children as much as career

    Restrictive roles of marriages, many people didn't like them, but today, there are much more flexible conceptions of marital roles

    Individual factors.
    People who have liberal attitudes have a higher divorce rate
    Peoples who's parents disapprove of the marriage have a higher divorce rate, either by interference or better perceptiins in the first place
    People who are depressed, suffer from depression have a higher divorce rate.
    If there is short spacing between pregnancies, those families are more likely to get divorced, trying to deal with more then one infant at a time, but it's time consuming emotional consuming and difficult, stress too...

    Different factors ranging from societal to individual that have an effect on the divorce rate.

    Consequences of divorce...
    These are general trends...
    Varies by the sex and age of a child
    Boys typically have a more immediate negative reaction to divorce then girls, particularly boys between the ages of 2 and 10 older boys do better.
    Both boys and girls
    More long lasting effects, espicaly bitter divorces.
    Difficulty in establishing relationships with the people of the opposite sex
    Most occur after there has been lots of conflict, they form relationships but they seem to have more difficulty
    For adults there is also an effect,
    Emotional lability, mood swings, not on a steady emotional course, low lows and high highs. They have difficulty eating and sleeping, did they do the right thing, they question themselves, self esteem, difficulty concentrating, taking care of themselves, neglect themselves. Change in the nature of their social relationships. Their friends will try to spend more time with them, and the person feel like failures and then the fifth wheel, and possibly a threat to their marriage. Sometimes the loss of an ongoing sexual relationship causes trouble. The status transformation, seeing themselves as a single person, not a husband or wife, that change in conception is difficult.
    For many there are financial problems, especially true for woman until the 1990s
    Only half of all court ordered alimony was ever paid and only half of that was paid in full.
    Feminization of poverty was he name given to the fact that woman weren't getting there alimony,

    Myths about divorce:
    Notional marriage study
    Top ten myths
    Half end in divorce
    Second marriages are not more successful
    Children recover quickly
    Having a child will prevent a divorce and improve satisfaction.
    Following divorce womans standard of living plumets and the mans improves,
    Children are better off with parents in unhappy marriages. (unclear)
    More cautious .. Children have as much success in marriage
    Children are better off in step families then in single parent (not true)
    Being unhappy leads to divorce
    Usually men initiate divorce proceedings
    End myths.

    Child custody...
    Joint custody
    Sole custody
    Split custody
    Custody laws, until the sixties, the practice that governed was that the custody belonged to the mother. The tender years doctrine
    The tender years doctrine said that the mother should have custody and governed court proceedings. Until 1960 95percent went to the mother.

    That was challenged by lee Salk who challenged this. He said he was at least if not more qualified, and he won the case and was awarded custody. Since then the tender years doctrine isn't used, now it's the best interests of the child. What is best for the child
    They are not to presume that the mother is the best parent. They often get reports form a social worker. The noncostodial parent has no rights
    Joint says both have rights that they share, both have equal rights in decisions.

    Split, when parents don't live close, each has custody for a period of time.

    Given the divorce rate, which has leveled off and slowly reducing now, almost half will end in divorce. So thee aree people are eligible for remarriage.

    About 3/4 of men and 2/3 of woman remarry
    That tells you something, what it tells you is that people like the institution of marriage, just not the marriage that they were in.
    Of the people who remarry, most do it within three years of the divorce
    Younger people have a higher rate.
    Men morer frequently and faster then woman
    Men in in higher social classes marry more frequently, woman in the working classes marry more frequently then men
    People without children are more likely to remarry
    People who are working are more likely
    Regionally, people in the south are les likely and in the northeast are more likely

    Problems with remarrying
    Creating a new family,
    Blended or reconstituted family, step family or binuclear family
    All sorts of problems
    Non custodial parent. They are still a parent, kids also have to adjust to a step parent, the nonresident parent who isn't there
    Step siblings, who gets what attention from whom etc.
    All these relationships create problems in the families, they can have a difficult time, we don't have the social norms to help guide people, what is the relationships and obligations of all of the people, ethical, moral, and social.
    Remarriage is a incomplete institution, we are not really clear of all the roles of remarriage.
    Things will work out
    Be an individual first, couple second
    Avoid the mistakes they made in the first marriage (people don't know and can't help it)
    Marriage makes people happier
    But, people who are married are happier and less mental illness

    Challenges of remarriages
    Complex kin relationships
    Step parents, etc
    Ambiguous roles and norms
    Adjusting to the children of ones spouse
    Adjustment of step siblings to each other
    Generally tangled finances
    Legal issues like custody...
    Can be difficult

    Some of the sources of difficult,
    Favoritism, divided loyalties, disciplining
    Many people Over come these
    Boys you see trouble in peer relations and school work


    Posts : 4
    Join date : 2010-03-02

    here are my may 4 notes, more or less the same

    Post  Loretta on Wed May 12, 2010 10:51 pm

    Issue of divorce rates and factors
    • Societal factors
    o Social integration- the more tightly knitted a community is the more likely is there is social support to help families with problems and prevent divorce
    • Today’s society is not as knitted and less social integration. Different shafts
    o Institution for divorced women make it more likely for women to divorce. Women are in the work force and more supported by society.
    • Demographic factors
    o Employment- those with less income have higher divorce rate than with higher income. Families with high income instability have higher chance of divorcing due to the pressure
    o Education level- the higher the level of education the less likely to divorce
    o Ethnicity and race play- African Americans and Puerto Ricans have higher divorce rate than whites.
    o Religion- protestants have higher divorce rates than Catholics and higher divorce rates than Jews
    • Life Course factors
    o Intergenerational- People who come from divorced families have a slightly higher probability of divorcing than those who come from a tight knit family
    o Age of first time of marriage- teenagers have a much higher divorce rate than those who marry at 20-30
    o Premarital pregnancy- those who have child before marriage are more likely to divorce
    o People are divorced once and remarry have a higher chance of divorcing again than people who marry the first time.
    o Routine- life becomes somewhat routine after marriage and many are unprepared for that.
    • Family process factors
    o Having children is less predictive than others
    o Marital problems- different roles expectations, values and morals.
    o Pressures of adult life
    o Restrictive nature of marital roles- there is now more flexible conceptions of marital roles so less likely to divorce
    • Individual level factors
    o Liberal attitudes have more divorce
    o People with parents who disagree marriage have higher divorce rate
    o People who are depressed have higher divorce rates because they cannot tolerate
    o Short time in between pregnancies because trying to deal with infants
    Consequences for divorce
    • Children
    o Varies from sex and age of child
    • Boys have a more immediate negative reaction than girls do. Especially true for younger boys
    • Children have longer lasting emotions especially if the divorce is bitter
    • Have trouble forming future relationships
    • Divorcees
    o Emotion lability- mood swings
    o Often have trouble eating and sleeping, feelings of ambivalence, self-esteem
    o Trouble recollecting themselves
    o Change in nature of social relationships
    o Many have financial problems

    Top 10 myths of divorce
    • Because people learn from their first marriage their second is more successful
    • Living together before marriage is better for the marriage

    Child Custody
    • Joint custody- both parents have rights, which they share. Typically given to parents who live near each other.
    • Sole custody- one parent has all rights to the child.
    • Split- parents who don’t live near each other and the child lives with each parent for a substantial period of time
    • Tender years doctrine- up until 1960s, doctrine said child was better raised by their mother in the tender years.
    o Challenged by Lee Salk challenged this doctrine and won the case.
    o Best Interest of the Child

    • A high level of remarriage proves that marriage is important, but that particular marriage is not good enough
    • Remarriages often happen within 3 marriages of divorce
    • Younger have a higher remarriage rate than older
    • Men marry faster and more frequently than women do
    • Men in higher social classes marry more frequently than women in high social class and women in low social class remarry more frequently than men in higher social classes
    • People with children are less likely to remarry
    • Remarriage is an incomplete institution

    • Conflict between step siblings
    • Readjusting to a child that is not yours

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